In Mongolia, after years of repression and human rights violations, artisanal miners have made significant progress towards their integration into the formal economy and the realization of their rights.
Upon its emergence, well over a decade ago, ASM was largely viewed as a temporary annoyance that prompted widespread public opposition, frequent exploitation and human rights abuses of illegal miners, including acts of unlawful confinement, physical and sexual assault and denial of basic social services.
The ASM legal framework was established through amendments to the Law on Minerals and the Law on Land in July 2010, and a regulation on the extraction of minerals from small-scale mines approved in December 2010. The State Minerals Policy 2014-2025 was approved through Resolution No. 18 of the Parliament of Mongolia in January 2014. According to the policy document, the Government of Mongolia supports artisanal and small-scale miners through related policy and legal frameworks providing legitimate partnership structures.